Explore KSACs by Pathway

Explore Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Credentials (KSACs) by IT Pathway.

5. Cybersecurity Fundamentals

Label KSAC Description Bloom's Taxonomy Level Cross-Cutting
a Examine and employ principles of cybersecurity including its goals, objectives, and purposes ability 2
b Describe the need for security and identify security risks and ssociated security safeguards and methodologies (e.g., auditing). knowledge 2
c Explain the need for confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA) and identify types of controls (e.g., deterrent, preventative, detective, compensating, technical and administrative) knowledge 1
d Explain security in terms of authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) as well as access knowledge 3
e Understand the purpose and function of cybersecurity technology so identifying and implementing the various tools necessary to improve an organization's resiliency and reduce the possibility of data breaches ability 3
f Describe, recognize, and mitigate major security threats (e.g., adware, viruses, spyware, trojans, rootkits, logic bombs, worms, spyware, ransomware, spoofing, hacking, phishing, and ploymorphic malware), using the tools standard in the industry skill 4
g Describe the components of the physical environment (e.g., wiring closets, server rooms, data centers) and physical security systems. knowledge 2
h Describe the need for security in networking (e.g., firewalls, access controls, encryption, demilitarized zone). knowledge 2
i Understand the indicators of compromise (IOCs) and their use in determining whether an attack has happened or is in progress knowledge 3
j Track and catalog computing assets through inventory management, devices and software ability 2
k Describe the need for security in application development. knowledge 2
l Describe computer forensic techniques, their importance in incident response, and their relevance to law enforcement knowledge 2
m Recognize and describe industry threat models (CVE, CWE, threat intel feed, etc). skill 2
n Demonstrate and recognize common cyber-attack techniques such as the cyber kill chain and the MiTRE ATT&CK framework knowledge 3
o Describe attackers (black hat, white hat, nation states, etc.) and techniques (cybercriminals, APTs). knowledge 2
p Describe and understand social engineering attacks (e.g., shoulder surfing, dumpster diving, tailgating, impersonation, hoaxes, phishing, spear phishing, whaling, vishing), knowledge 2
q Understand the issues with passwords and the tools and techniques available to crack passwords (e.g. brute force, dictionary attacks, birthday attacks, rainbow attacks and other hybrid attacks). knowledge 2
r Desctribe and discover vulnerabilities, understanding concepts and tools of vulnerability assessment, scanning, and penetration testing, and the work of red .purple and blue teams. knowledge 2
s Demonstrate an understanding of adversarial thinking using capture the flag (CTF) and other techniques. skill 3
t Understand the concept of digital trust computing and the Zero Trust principles knowledge 2
u Describe cyber threat intelligence (CTI) and its role in cybersecurity knowledge 2
v Recognize that an enterprise security requires a holistics strategy that considers people, process, and technology. knowledge 2
w Categorize system contrils in compliance with government and industry standards including NIST Cybersecurity Framework, FISMA, FEDRAMP, PCI/DSS and ISO standards knowledge 4



  1. Security+
  2. Network+
  3. Cloud+
  4. CEH
  5. GSEC
  6. CAP


  1. CCNA
  2. CYSA+


  1. CASP
  2. CISSP
  3. CISA
  4. CISM
  5. CRISC
  6. CCSP